In this post, we will discuss about the methods of teaching in the gurukul education system. If you want to know more about Gurukul Education System, read our post written on it where you can also download a free ebook on Gurukul education system.
(१) Samwad or Dialogue (संवाद पद्धति)
Dialogue or Enquiry that we may call it, is the best type of learning because in this way the one who is asking the question is already invested and has an interest in learning about the particular subject matter.
(२) Preaching (उपदेश पद्धति)
In the preaching system, a learned speaker, after fixing a topic, speaks on that topic for a fixed time, it is called Upadesh. The language of preaching is mature, and its meaning is also deep. Telling jokes, stories, etc. is not preaching. Teaching is for a particular disciple or class only.
The speaker has special knowledge of the material coming in the sermon, so it is necessary for the listener to have a general knowledge of that material as well. This method has not been made public for the same reason. It is for the selected special category.
(३) Teaching by example (दृष्टांत पद्धति)
It becomes easiest to understand/explain any subject through the visual method. In the illustration method, as the case may be, an example of that type is given.
Drishtik (basic substance) can be explained by giving an illustration. Illustrations are often given of things or of substances because things are everywhere. The illustration method is used to refer to an unfamiliar object or person from familiar objects, as if a person’s life is pure and brilliant, then it is said to be like ‘gold’.
After that, as gold is tested by being rubbed, heated, pierced and beaten, similarly the male (man) is tested by his virtues, modesty, knowledge and deeds. An attempt has been made to explain the vision of man through the parable of gold.
(४) Learning by doing (प्रत्यक्ष शिक्षा पद्धति)
In direct education system, teaching is given through activities. Some things have to be learned by doing, then some things have to be learned by doing. Some things have to be taught by doing experiments. The use of any subject comes under this method.
(५) Estimation learning (परोक्ष शिक्षा पद्धति)
In indirect education method, not by showing anything, but by firming up the guesswork and by developing the power of thought and imagination. Through this method, the guessing power of the students increases and the level of thinking is deepened. It is necessary to have effective thinking power to read philosophy like Nyaya, Vaisheshik.
(६) Teaching through story telling; The learner reads the story : (स्वैरकथा पद्धति)
In the swairkatha method, a story (katha) is told on the subject which is to be taught. Just as illustrations are told to explain the principle, similarly to make any difficult subject easy, swairkatha (story) is told.
That is why it has been said that yasteshan svairakatha shastrani bhavanti itaresham (swairkathas (tales) told by the Acharya also become scripture for others.)
The education imparted through Swairakatha is very excellent. Panchatantra, Hitopadesh, Kathasaritsagar etc. texts are the texts that teach through Sairkatha method.
(७) Learning by teaching (पाठनकलाविधि (पाठन द्वारा पठन पद्धति))
Students should also read (9800779) while reading ([.87॥98), it is called reading method. The art of reading develops automatically through the method of teaching. It is not proper to believe that you will teach after completing B.Ed/M.Ed once after reading it completely.
As if one eats for the first five years and then sleeps continuously for five years, it is not possible, and it is not even possible, similarly both the things of reading with reading and reading with reading are Gurukul education system, should be done, so that Students could become excellent teachers, best speakers and best conductors and Acharyas should always remain inquisitive, practitioners and modifiers.
(८) Group Discussion (चिंतनिका पद्धति)
The same method as the method of reading is the ‘Chintnika method’. In Gurukul education, when the Acharya (Guru) teaches any subject and all the disciples listen together, they learn. After that all the students sit together and discuss about that topic, discuss with each other on various major and minor points and repeat the practice, it is called Chintanika method.
If the number of students (disciples) is more, then dividing them into small groups should be done in such a way that all the students can present their thoughts and ideas.
The world famous politician Acharya Chanakya has said about this method that padamekam acharyat dhate, padamekam sahabrahmacharibhih. That is, the more education the disciple receives from the teacher, the more education, the more knowledge he receives from his classmates through the method of thinking.
(९) Teaching from experiences (अनुभव कथन द्वारा शिक्षण)
Acharya sometimes talks about good and bad experiences in his life with the disciples, by sharing his experiences, he increases the enthusiasm of the students. They also teach lessons of caution, awareness and efficiency. This is also the best method of education.
(१०) Learning from traits of things (लक्षणविज्ञान पद्धति)
To understand the true nature of any object, it is necessary to know and understand its characteristics. To make an accurate assessment of an object or person on the basis of symptoms, to give it a proper place in one’s life, this is also education.
With this method, accurate knowledge of many substances can be easily obtained. And the knowledge that has been acquired is true, it is true, it can also be checked by this method. Symptom method is a suitable method for teaching Nyayadarshan and subjects like Ayurveda, Astrology.
For the accomplishment of any object, the characteristics and proof of the object are essential.
(११) Learning with the help of playing (क्रीड़ा (खेल) द्वारा शिक्षा पद्धति)
In this education system, any subject is taught through play. The teaching given in the game is actually the true teaching. is gone. The teaching given in the game is actually the true teaching.
Sports education system means not teaching sports, but teaching through sports. To teach the highest values of life through play. As Lord Shri Krishna created an atmosphere of revolution in Gokul while playing. In our ancient education system, three types of primary education have been told. Story, Game and Song This is the triveni of child education.
Teaching through play connects both the student and the teacher with each other through emotional unity.
१२) Memorizing by rhythming (गानद्वारा ज्ञान (गीत द्वारा शिक्षा) पद्धति)
Songs and music are also integrally associated with all the festivals of our country. The journey of life, which started with the sweet lullaby of the mother in childhood, continues till the song of death – the song of prayer.
Those doing research on the subject of memory power by exercising the human brain also tell that the listeners quickly absorb the words of the song/song. The teaching/knowledge acquired through songs is remembered for a long time, so in Gurukulam, children are taught songs according to the subject.
Such as chanting the mantras of Vedas-Upanishads, shlokas of scriptures like Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, recitation of Yoga Sutras, knowledge of Gayatri-Anushtap etc. verses, hymns composed by devout poets like Tulsidas, Raidas, Surdas, Mirabai, Kabir, national poet Maithilisharan The great lyrical compositions of modern poets are taught to the students, from the epics composed by Gupta to Jayadrath Vadh etc. All kinds of songs and music are taught except for corrupt and meaningless film songs.
Singing songs in a group increases the feeling of unity, mutual harmony and harmony.
(१३) कथाकथन शिक्षा पद्धति (Story Telling)
In this method, education is given by telling/telling any one story (story), hence it is called storytelling method.
The difference between these two methods of storytelling and storytelling is that in storytelling, the story itself is in the form of perception. Things are not used to explain anything, but only to explain the story, it is called swairkatha.
To tell the story even better, it is also necessary to have drama in it. single acting, mute drama
And drama, all these education systems are actually a part of storytelling.
(१४) नैमित्तिक शिक्षा पद्धति
It is taught in a particular way on every week, every month or occasion on the basis (for a particular reason), it is called Naimittik education system.
(१५) तद्विद्संभाषा पद्धति
When at a certain place, for a certain time, the master scholars of the corresponding subjects present their respective opinions/objections, experiments done on weaponry and research etc. in front of their audience, it is called Tadvidsambhasha education system.
चरक संहिता में इस पद्धति की प्रशंसा करते हुए कहा है कि :-
Praising this method in Charaka Samhita, it has been said that: – Tadvidsambhasha is the best way to increase intelligence.
In today’s definition, what is called a camp, seminar or workshop, it is called Tadvidsambhasha. Tadvidsambhasha means to present any subject in front of the audience by an authorized person by weighing on the scriptural basis.
(१६) Debating (शात्रार्थ पद्धति)
This method is very famous in North India. In this method, one has to refute the former side and present its side. The specialty of this method is to establish one’s opinion / side on the basis of the scriptures and to argue accordingly and to make the students aware of the correct meaning of the scriptures to the opponents.
(१७) Syntactic method (वाक्यार्थ पद्धति)
This method is very famous in South India. When one side supports/establishes its subject about any one subject, the basic purpose of this method is to make the inquisitors/opposite aware of its side, to make it understandable.
(१८) Delivering learning by celebrating festivals: उत्सव संदेश पद्धति
Utsavpriya: Khalu Manushya: That is, human beings are festive. According to the great poet Tulsidas, in our culture, the science of health and the purpose of devotion are hidden behind the celebrations, festivals are not just for entertainment, but festivals should be celebrated for enlightenment, health education, and self-realization through spiritual practice.
On the days of celebration, the education given in relation to the festival, about the mystery and importance associated with the festival, is called the festival message system. Different types of festivals come here in different seasons, in that indirectly we get training in the subject of Ayurveda, Astro, etc.
(१९) देशाटन (प्रवास-पर्यटन) पद्धति : Visiting foreign places
Deshatan i.e. migration-tourism. Not only for entertainment, not for changing the air, not for employment, but for the exchange of knowledge, going from one state/place to another / place, it is called the Deshatan method. The facts related to the region we travel to / its history are interviewed. The knowledge which is not acquired by reading thousands of books, that knowledge is easily obtained from the country. Along with knowledge, a variety of practical experiences are also obtained by traveling.
Collective patriotism also increases mutual unity. In Gurukulam, children go for deshatan (migration) to various places to informally teach geography/history/tradition, etc. This method is excellent for teaching subjects like (Geography/History etc) easily
(२०) manual education system (प्रहेलिकाशिक्षा पद्धति)
Prahelika means puzzle. In this education system, an attempt is made to increase the imagination, thinking power, and observation power of the children through puzzles. In trying to solve the puzzle, children think, then guess and find the right solution, then they get pleasure. In this method, a lot of puzzles are also found in the Sanskrit language, it gives knowledge of language like Sanskrit and also knowledge of dictionary. By observing the surrounding objects, the child can also compose the puzzle (puzzle) with the power of imagination.
२१) Encoding Method: Puzzles (कूटप्रश्न पद्धति: पहेलियाँ)
Code questions mean logical questions, and mathematical or scientific puzzles. This method is very useful for increasing general intelligence or reasoning. Vikram-Vital’s, Tenali Raman’s stories, riddles, and wit are found. In the book named Bhojprabandhan, there are questions and puzzles in the Sanskrit language. There is also a literary question in the Mahabharata composed by Vedavyasji.
It also takes the exercise of the intellect to understand the code, and even more intellectual exercise in finding its solution. Such questions make the intellect sharp and subtle. For the development of intelligence, education should be given through this method.
(२२) Octave (अष्टावधान या शतावधान पद्धति)
Attention means meditation. To pay full attention to eight (corrupted), hundred (centenary) or more subjects simultaneously by the power of the five senses, the receptive power of the mind and the holding power of the mind, then remembering it again ((27804॥), it is called Ashtavadhan, Shatavadhan and It is called Anekavadhan. In this method of education, practice is made to keep the mind active at many places simultaneously, to grasp (retention) many subjects at the same time. Many scholars are still proficient in this discipline. This method is especially It is famous in Karnataka.
(२३) Poetry (काव्यपूर्ति तथा शीघ्रकाव्यरचना पद्धति)
Kavyapurti (Padpurti) is also a scientific and literary method of education, in which incomplete verses are completed in such a way that meaningful composition (poetry) can be made. In which full care has to be taken of the rhyme, the word quantity. Mahakavi Kalidas is such a poetic fulfillment. It is famous for its fulfillment.
Quick poetic method ie converting any prose dry information or story-talk into a rhetorical, figurative, literary form. It is necessary to have a good knowledge of verses, rhetoric, samasa and dictionary in this method to quickly convert a passage or samprat situation into poetry.
(२४) Experimentation (प्रयोग पद्धति)
To explain any scientific theory or mathematical law by means, through toys, in practical form, it is called experimental method. The toys of small children should also be such that along with giving them entertainment, they can also increase their knowledge. In Kaumabhritya and Kashyapa Samhita also, the details of how children should play games (toys) have been given.
In modern times, Mr. Arvind Gupta, an IIT engineer, has written in relation to the creation of scientific toys named ‘Match Stick Model’. Which has also been translated into 13 Indian languages.
(२५) Researching or sharing the research (सवसिक्षण या स्वानुभव कथन)
Self-education is the priority in the Gurukul education system. The subjects of justice, Ayurveda, grammar, etc. are contemplation, contemplation, and brainstorming, for that self-education i.e. lonely contemplation is very important. By narrating the experience gained through self-learning or contemplation, other students are also given inspiration and encouragement for practice and self-learning.
Gradually, every student becomes in the habit of contemplating on each lesson received from the Acharya. The student should spend time in self-education or contemplation without wasting time on useless conversations etc., this is the primary rule of Gurukul education.
(२६ ) Group working (सामूहिक क्रिया-कलाप)
Doing any action in a group increases the feeling of unity, fraternity and co-operation. Doing any work together becomes easier. Training to work with each other happens spontaneously
By working together, there is no depression in the failure of the work and ego in the success. Be it the work of physical labor or art work, doing it in a group increases enthusiasm, fatigue is also less, and the work is also done quickly.
In ‘Gurukul’ weekly Shramyagya is conducted by the students, in which Acharyas and teachers are also involved. Even the laborious work is difficult, everyone gets it done in a short time. How to do any work cleanly even in a short time, its education is received from childhood itself through group activity method. Not only becoming a bookworm, the students of Gurukulam get a living education from nature, from the five elements, and also through the character of Acharya, etc.